Saturday, March 19, 2005


German  Iferten,   city, Vaud canton, western Switzerland, on the southern shore of Lake Neuchâtel, at the mouth of La Thielle River, north of Lausanne. It originated as the Roman camp Eburodunum, and the ruined Roman walls remain. The castle (1260–78) of the dukes of Savoy was the seat of the boarding school established in 1805 by the Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, which flourished for 20 years;

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

Infection, Social habits

The vampire bats of Brazil, which transmit paralytic rabies, bite cattle but not ranchers, presumably because on the plains of Brazil ranchers are few but cattle plentiful. Bat-transmitted rabies, however, does occur in human beings in Trinidad, where herdsmen sleep in shacks near their animals. The mechanism of infection is the same in Brazil and Trinidad, but the

Tuesday, March 15, 2005


One or more rawis attached themselves to a particular poet and learned his works by heart. They then recited and explained the poet's verse before a wider audience. Such an attachment often became an apprenticeship,

Sunday, March 13, 2005


City, Jaén province, in the comunidad autónoma (“autonomous community”) of Andalusia, southern Spain. Úbeda lies northeast of the city of Jaén, on the Úbeda Hills in the Guadalimar Valley. Originally an Iberian settlement, the city was occupied by the Arabs in 711 and was reconquered by Ferdinand III of Castile in 1234. It is renowned for its architecture, particularly of the Renaissance

Thursday, March 10, 2005


Formerly  (until 1949) Madura,   city, south-central Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India, bounded on the west by Kerala state. It is the second largest, and probably oldest, city in the state. Located on the Vaigai River and enclosed by the Anai, Naga, and Pasu (Elephant, Snake, and Cow) hills, the compact old city, site of the Pandya (4th–11th century AD) capital, centres on Minaksi-Sundaresvara Temple. The temple, Tirumala Nayak

Wednesday, March 09, 2005


City, Houghton county, northwestern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S., across Portage Lake from Houghton. Laid out in 1859, it was named for John Hancock, the American Revolutionary War leader. With the discovery of nearby copper mines in the mid-19th century, Hancock became a busy shipping point. In addition to mining, local industries include the manufacture of foundry products

Sunday, March 06, 2005

Epistemology, René Descartes

Both the rise of modern science and the rediscovery of Skepticism were important influences on René Descartes (1596–1650). While he believed that humans were capable of knowledge and certainty and that modern science was developing the superstructure of knowledge, he thought that Skepticism presented a legitimate challenge that needed an answer, one that only he could